TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement is an offshoot of a series of negotiations going on around the world since the inception of the Paris Convention in the year 1883. It has been made mandatory for the member countries of the TRIPS Agreement to comply with Articles 1 to 12 and Article 19 of the Paris Convention.
TRIPS requires that countries not providing product patents in respect of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, have to put in place a mechanism for accepting product patent applications w.e.f. 1 January 1995. Such applications will only be examined for the grant of patents after suitable amendments in the national patent laws have been made. This mechanism of accepting product patent application was called the "mail box" mechanism.